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  • MethodsSurface Mining

    The choice of open pit mining or underground mining in the case of uranium depends on the depth of the deposit how easily the rocks and soil on top of the ore can be removed and finally economics as the amount of overburden that must be removed to expose the seam varies

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  • How Is Nickel Minedwanttoknowitcom

    Open pit mining is where the top layers of the soil are removed with heavy machinery to expose the seams of rock underneath These rock seams are then dug out and broken up to be refined Underground mining is when tunnels are dug under the ground and the ore is mined from the tunnel walls

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  • How Is Coal ExtractedReferencecom

    In this type of mining giant machines remove topsoil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal After coal extraction the topsoil is replaced so that the area can be reused for croplands wildlife habitats recreation or offices

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  • Coal Mining And ProcessingEnergy Trends Insider

    Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than feet underground In surface mining giant machines remove the topsoil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal Once the mining is finished the dirt and rock are returned to the pit the topsoil is replaced and the area is replanted

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  • MiningSurface MiningBritannicacom

    As a pit is deepened more and more waste rock must be stripped away in order to uncover the ore Eventually there comes a point where the revenue from the exposed ore is less than the costs involved in its recovery Mining then ceases The ratio of the amount of waste rock stripped to ore removed is called the overall stripping ratio

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  • Miningexamples Body Used Water Process Earth Life

    Mining begins when scrapers remove any nonore material called overburden on top of the ore Explosives are then used to blast apart the ore bed itself Fragments from the blasting are hauled away in large trucks As workers dig downward into the ore bed

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  • Phosphate RockMinerals Education Coalition

    During surface mining overburden is drilled blasted and removed by dragline to the side of the mining area for subsequent reclamation Small draglines electric shovels and bulldozers recover the upper ore body The intercalating limestone layer is then blasted and removed to expose the phosphate bed which is loaded onto trucks

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  • COAL AT A GLANCEneedorg

    Surface mining is used when a coal seam is relatively close to the surface usually within feet The ˜rst step in surface mining is to remove and store the soil and rock covering the coal called the overburden Workers use a variety of equipment—draglines power shovels bulldozers and frontend loaders—to expose the coal seam for

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  • Surface Mining Techniques Used In The Oil SandsOil

    SURFACE MINING ≠ STRIP MINING Although sometimes mistakenly referred to as strip mining oil sands is actually mined from an openpit below several meters of overburden Strip mining is the mining of a relatively flat deposit very close to the surface commonly used in coal or phosphate industries

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  • Spoil TipWikipedia

    A spoil tip also called a boney pile gob pile or culm bank is a pile built of accumulated spoil – waste material removed during mining These waste materials are typically composed of shale as well as smaller quantities of carboniferous sandstone and various other residues Spoil tips are not formed of slag but in some areas they are referred to as slag heaps

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  • PHASES OF A MINING PROJECTHomeELAW

    Openpit mining is a type of strip mining in which the ore deposit extends very deep in the ground necessitating the removal of layer upon layer of overburden and ore In many cases logging of trees and clearcutting or burning of vegetation above the ore deposit may precede removal of the overburden

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  • Unit Reading Mining And Mining ImpactsStudent Materials

    In surface mining approximately tons of waste rock is removed for each ton of ore Underground mining generally creates less waste rock than surface mining the waste rock is either moved to the surface or used to fill in areas of the mine no longer in use

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  • Copper Mining And Processing Processing Of Copper Ores

    Copper processing is a complicated process that begins with mining of the ore less thancopper and ends with sheets of pure copper called cathodes which will ultimately be made into products for everyday useThe most common types of ore copper oxide and copper sulfide undergo two different processes hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy respectively due to the different

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  • Glossary Of Mining Termsrocksandmineralscom

    Dragline — A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove overburden layers of rock and soil covering a coal seam The dragline casts a wire ropehung bucket a considerable distance collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second wire rope or chain elevates the bucket and dumps the material on a spoil bank in a hopper or on a pile

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  • MiningUnderground MiningBritannicacom

    Cutandfill mining In cutandfill mining the ore is removed in a series of horizontal drifting slices When each slice is removed the void is filled generally with waste material from the mineralprocessing plant and the next slice of ore is mined In overhand cutandfill mining the most common variation

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